Agent Portals

the portal of exit for the infectious agent was

by Ruby Barton Published 1 year ago Updated 4 months ago
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The portal of exit is any route which enables a pathogen to leave the reservoir or host. In humans the key portals of exit are: Alimentary – via vomiting, diarrhoea or biting

The portal of exit
The portal of exit is any route which enables a pathogen to leave the reservoir or host. In humans the key portals of exit are: Alimentary – via vomiting, diarrhoea or biting. Genitourinary – via sexual transmission.
Jun 11, 2019

Full Answer

What is a portal of exit in a chain of infection?

Chain of Infection: Portal of Exit The Portal of Exit refers to any route that the pathogen can leave the reservoir. This depends entirely on the characteristics of the reservoir. In humans, the main portals of exit include:

What is the portal of entry for infectious agents?

The portal of entry must provide access to tissues in which the pathogen can multiply or a toxin can act. Often, infectious agents use the same portal to enter a new host that they used to exit the source host. For example, influenza virus exits the respiratory tract of the source host and enters the respiratory tract of the new host.

What is meant by portal of exit and mode of transmission?

Portal of exit is the way the infectious agent leaves the reservoir (through open wounds, aerosols, and splatter of body fluids including coughing, sneezing, and saliva) Mode of transmission is the way the infectious agent can be passed on (through direct or indirect contact, ingestion, or inhalation)

What are the main portals of entry and exit from the reservoir?

This depends entirely on the characteristics of the reservoir. In humans, the main portals of exit include: Alimentary: vomiting, diarrhea, saliva Genitourinary: sexual contact Respiratory: secretions from coughing, sneezing, or talking

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What is the portal of exit in the chain of infection?

Portal of exit is the path by which a pathogen leaves its host. The portal of exit usually corresponds to the site where the pathogen is localized.

What is the portal of exit?

PORTAL OF EXIT The place where the organism leaves the reservoir, such as the respiratory tract (nose, mouth), intestinal tract (rectum), urinary tract, or blood and other body fluids.

What are the 4 portals of exit for infections?

Chain of Infection: Portal of ExitAlimentary: vomiting, diarrhea, saliva.Genitourinary: sexual contact.Respiratory: secretions from coughing, sneezing, or talking.Skin: open wounds.

What is the flu portal of exit?

Influenza transmission occurs when the influenza virus (Infectious Agent), lives and grows in the client's/patient's/resident's lungs and air passages (Reservoir), exits the respiratory tract through coughing and sneezing (Portal of Exit), travels via hands, surfaces and droplets (Mode of Transmission), and gains entry ...

What are the portal of entry and exit?

Portals of entry and exit in horizontal transmission include all body surfaces, or the blood stream, by arthropod bite. Vertical transmission may occur in the ovum, via the placenta, during birth, or in the colostrum or milk. The mode of exit is not necessarily the same as the portal of entry.

What are the 5 portals of exit?

In humans the key portals of exit are:Alimentary – via vomiting, diarrhoea or biting.Genitourinary – via sexual transmission.Respiratory – through coughing, sneezing and talking.Skin – via skin lesions.Trans-placental – where transmission is from mother to foetus.

Are eyes a portal of exit?

The eye is an exposed and documented portal of entry for blood and other potentially infectious debris.

What is the main route to spread infection?

Body fluids – A body fluid e.g. blood, urine, pus, saliva from one person enters the body of another e.g. through cuts or other means such as sexual intercourse (e.g. syphilis, HIV etc.). Through saliva (e.g. glandular fever).

What is the infectious agent in the chain of infection?

The six links in the chain are: The Infectious Agent – or the microorganism which has the ability to cause disease. The Reservoir or source of infection where the microorganism can live and thrive. This may be a person, an animal, any object in the general environment, food or water.

What is the portal of exit for the common cold?

Portal of exit = The path by which the infectious agent leaves its host. This could be through the nose, mouth, or in blood or body fluids. Method of transmission = The way the agent travels from the reservoir to the host, which may include direct and indirect contact, droplet, and airborne transmission.

What is the portal of entry of flu?

The mucosal tissues of the upper respiratory tract are the main portal of entry for influenza virus, and the mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against infection.

What is the portal of entry for the common cold?

Portal of entry Infectious agents gain entry into the host either through openings in the skin (e.g. cuts), or via mucous membranes lining the wall of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Infectious agents access the respiratory tract via the eyes, nose and mouth.

Is blood a portal of exit?

Portals of exit is the means by which a pathogen exits from a reservoir. For a human reservoir, the portal of exit can include blood, respiratory secretions, and anything exiting from the gastrointestinal or urinary tracts.

How do you break the chain of portal exit?

Other examples of exit portals are blood, saliva, feces, and so on. This link can be broken by avoiding coughing and sneezing into the hands or onto surfaces, but to the elbow instead.

What is the most common portal of entry?

In order for a pathogen to gain access to the host, the pathogen must pass through a portal of entry. One of the most common portals of entry is the mucous membranes, especially those of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts.

What are the portals of entry for pathogens?

The mechanism by which the pathogen moves from the reservoir into the patient is known as transmission such as by drinking contaminated water. The portals of entry are mucosal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cutaneous.

What are the six links of a pathogen?

The six links include: the infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, and susceptible host . Reservoir includes places in the environment where the pathogen lives (this includes people, animals and insects, medical equipment, and soil and water)

How many points in the chain of infection can be broken?

Therefore, to prevent germs from infecting more people, we must break the chain of infection. No matter the germ, there are six points at which the chain can be broken and a germ can be stopped from infecting another person. The six links include: the infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, ...

What is a susceptible host?

Susceptible host can be any person (the most vulnerable of whom are receiving healthcare, are immunocompromised, or have invasive medical devices including lines, devices, and airways) The way to stop germs from spreading is by interrupting this chain at any link.

How do germs spread?

Despite the variety of viruses and bacteria, germs spread from person to person through a common series of events. Therefore, to prevent germs from infecting more people, we must break the chain of infection. No matter the germ, there are six points at which the chain can be broken and a germ can be stopped from infecting another person.

What is the portal of exit?

The portal of exit is any route which enables a pathogen to leave the reservoir or host. In humans the key portals of exit are: Alimentary – via vomiting, diarrhoea or biting. Genitourinary – via sexual transmission. Respiratory – through coughing, sneezing and talking.

How can an infection be transmitted from its reservoir to a susceptible host?

The two main ways that an infection can be transmitted from its reservoir to a susceptible host are via direct transmission or indirect transmission. Direct transmission tends to be instantaneous and occurs when there is direct contact with the infectious agent.

What is the first link in the chain of infection?

The first link in the chain of infection is the infectious agent or pathogen which can take the form of: Viruses – such as Influenza A, shingles and Hepatitis. Bacteria – including Lyme disease and Leptospirosis. Fungi – for example Candidiasis and Aspergillosis.

What is indirect transmission?

Indirect transmission can also be airborne, in which tiny particles of an infectious agent are carried by dust or droplets in the air and inhaled into the lungs. 5. The portal of entry. The portal of entry is the means by which an infection is able to enter a susceptible host.

What is the habitat in which a pathogen lives, flourishes and is able to multiply?

2. The reservoir . A reservoir is the principal habitat in which a pathogen lives, flourishes and is able to multiply. Common reservoirs for infectious agents include humans, animals or insects and the environment.

How well do pathogens thrive?

How well any pathogen is able to thrive depends on three factors: 2. The reservoir. A reservoir is the principal habitat in which a pathogen lives, flourishes and is able to multiply. Common reservoirs for infectious agents include humans, animals or insects and the environment.

What is a HAI in 2021?

Updated February 2021 with infographic linked above. Healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) are the result of a sequence of events that take place between an infectious agent (or pathogen), a host and an environment – in a process that is referred to as the ‘chain of infection’. Understanding how infections become established in healthcare settings ...

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Reservoir

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The reservoir of an infectious agent is the habitat in which the agent normally lives, grows, and multiplies. Reservoirs include humans, animals, and the environment. The reservoir may or may not be the source from which an agent is transferred to a host. For example, the reservoir of Clostridium botulinum is soil, but the source o…
See more on cdc.gov

Modes of Transmission

  • An infectious agent may be transmitted from its natural reservoir to a susceptible host in different ways. There are different classifications for modes of transmission. Here is one classification: In direct transmission, an infectious agent is transferred from a reservoir to a susceptible host by direct contact or droplet spread. Direct contactoccurs through skin-to-skin contact, kissing, and …
See more on cdc.gov

Portal of Entry

  • The portal of entry refers to the manner in which a pathogen enters a susceptible host. The portal of entry must provide access to tissues in which the pathogen can multiply or a toxin can act. Often, infectious agents use the same portal to enter a new host that they used to exit the source host. For example, influenza virus exits the respiratory tract of the source host and enters the re…
See more on cdc.gov

Host

  • The final link in the chain of infection is a susceptible host. Susceptibility of a host depends on genetic or constitutional factors, specific immunity, and nonspecific factors that affect an individual’s ability to resist infection or to limit pathogenicity. An individual’s genetic makeup may either increase or decrease susceptibility. For example, persons with sickle cell trait seem to be …
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Implications For Public Health

  • Knowledge of the portals of exit and entry and modes of transmission provides a basis for determining appropriate control measures. In general, control measures are usually directed against the segment in the infection chain that is most susceptible to intervention, unless practical issues dictate otherwise. For some diseases, the most appropriate intervention may b…
See more on cdc.gov

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